Alloy Steel

About

Carbon steel is an alloy consisting of iron and carbon. Several other elements are allowed in carbon steel, with low maximum percentages. These elements are manganese, with a 1.65% maximum, silicon, with a 0.60% maximum, and copper, with a 0.60% maximum. Other elements may be present in quantities too small to affect its properties.


Grades of Carbon & Alloy Steel


There are four types of carbon steel based on the amount of carbon present in the alloy. Lower carbon steels are softer and more easily formed, and steels with a higher carbon content are harder and stronger, but less ductile, and they become more difficult to machine and weld. Below are the properties of the grades of carbon steel we supply:


  • Low Carbon Steel – Composition of 0.05%-0.25% carbon and up to 0.4% manganese. Also known as mild steel, it is a low-cost material that is easy to shape. While not as hard as higher-carbon steels, carburizing can increase its surface hardness.

  • Medium Carbon Steel – Composition of 0.29%-0.54% carbon, with 0.60%-1.65% manganese. Medium carbon steel is ductile and strong, with long-wearing properties.

  • High Carbon Steel – Composition of 0.55%-0.95% carbon, with 0.30%-0.90% manganese. It is very strong and holds shape memory well, making it ideal for springs and wire.

  • Very High Carbon Steel - Composition of 0.96%-2.1% carbon. Its high carbon content makes it an extremely strong material. Due to its brittleness, this grade requires special handling.

Tables

CLASSIFICATION OF TITANIUM (ASTM SPEC.)
SPECIFICATION
GRADE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTY
H
MAX
O
MAX
N
MAX
Fe
MAX
C
MAX
Pd Others Ti Tensile Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
0.2% Yield Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
Elongation
%
Pure Titanium
ASTM Grade 1 0.015 0.180 0.030 0.200 0.080     Bal. >=240 170~310 >=24
ASTM Grade 2 0.015 0.250 0.030 0.300 0.080     Bal. >=345 275~450 >=20
ASTM Grade 3 0.015 0.350 0.050 0.300 0.080     Bal. >=450 380~550 >=18
ASTM Grade 4 0.015 0.400 0.050 0.500 0.080     Bal. >=550 483~655 >=15
Corrosion Resistant Alloy
ASTM Grade 7 0.015 0.250 0.030 0.300 0.080 0.12~0.25   Bal. >=345 275~450 >=20
ASTM Grade 11 0.015 0.180 0.030 0.200 0.080     Bal. >=240 170~310 >=24
a+b Alloy
3Al-2.5V ASTM Gr.9 0.015 0.115 0.030 0.250 0.080   Al:2.5~3.5
V:2.0~3.0
Bal. >=620 >=483 15
6Al-4V ASTM Gr.5 0.015 0.200 0.050 0.400 0.080   Al:5.5~6.75
V:3.5~4.5
Bal. >=895 >=828 10~
6Al-4V ELI ASTM Gr.23 0.0125 0.130 0.030 0.250 0.080   Al:5.5~6.5
V:3.5~4.5
Bal. >=828 >=759  
b Alloy
15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al   0.015 0.130 0.050 0.250 0.050     Bal. 745~945
(1000~)
690~835
(965~1170)
12~
(7~)
CLASSIFICATION OF TITANIUM (JIS SPEC.)
SPECIFICATION
GRADE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTY
H
MAX
O
MAX
N
MAX
Fe
MAX
C
MAX
Pd Others Ti Tensile Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
0.2% Yield Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
Elongation
%
Pure Titanium
JIS 1종 0.013 0.150 0.030 0.200 0.080     Bal. 270~410 >=165 >=27
JIS 2종 0.013 0.200 0.030 0.250 0.080     Bal. 340~510 >=215 >=23
JIS 3종 0.013 0.300 0.050 0.300 0.080     Bal. 480~620 >=345 >=18
JIS 4종 0.013 0.400 0.050 0.500 0.080     Bal. 550~750 >=486 >=15
Corrosion Resistant Alloy
JIS 11종 0.013 0.150 0.030 0.200 0.080 0.12~0.25   Bal. 270~410 >=165 >=27
JIS 12종 0.013 0.200 0.030 0.250 0.080 0.12~0.25   Bal. 340~510 >=215 >=23
a+b Alloy
JIS 60종 0.015 0.200 0.050 0.400 0.080 Al:5.5~6.75
V:3.5~4.5
  Bal. >=895 >=825 >=10
JIS 60E종 0.013 0.130 0.030 0.250 0.080 Al:5.5~6.5
V:3.5~4.5
  Bal. >=825 >=755 >=10
JIS 61종 0.015 0.150 0.030 0.250 0.080 Al:2.5~3.5
V:2.0~3.0
  Bal. >=620 >=485 >=15
JIS 61F종 0.015 0.200 0.050 0.300 0.100 Al:2.7~3.5
V:1.6~3.4
  Bal. >=650 >=600 >=10
TYPICAL TITANIUM ALLOY
SPECIFICATION
NOMINAL
COMPOSITION
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTY
H
MAX
O
MAX
N
MAX
Fe
MAX
C
MAX
Pd Others Ti Tensile Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
0.2% Yield Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
Elongation
%
ASTM Gr.5 0.020 0.200 0.050 0.400 0.080   Al5.5/6.75
V 3.5/4.5
Bal. >=895 >=828 >=10
ASTM Gr.7 0.015 0.250 0.030 0.300 0.080 0.12/0.25   Bal. >=345 >=275-450 >=20
ASTM Gr.9 0.015 0.150 0.030 0.250 0.080   Al2.5/3.5
V 2.0/3.0
Bal. >=620 >=483 >=15
ASTM Gr.11 0.015 0.180 0.030 0.200 0.080 0.12/0.25   Bal. >=240 >=170-310 >=24
ASTM Gr.12 0.015 0.250 0.030 0.300 0.080   Mo0.2/0.4
Ni0.6/0.9
Bal. >=483 >=345 >=18
AMS Gr.14 0.015 0.130 0.050 0.250 0.050   V14.0/16.0
Cr2.5/3.5
Sn2.5/3.5
Al2.5/3.5
Bal. >=1241 >=1172 >=5
TITANIUM & TITANIUM ALLOY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS
SPECIFICATION
GRADE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION MECHANICAL PROPERTY
H
MAX
O
MAX
N
MAX
Fe
MAX
C
MAX
Pd Others Ti Tensile Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
0.2% Yield Strength
Mpa(N/mm2)
Elongation
%
Pure Titanium                      
ASTM F67 GRADE3 0.015 0.350 0.030 0.200 0.080     Bal. >=450 >=380 >=18
ASTM F67 GRADE4 0.015 0.400 0.030 0.500 0.080     Bal. >=550 >=483 >=15
a+b Alloy                    
ASTM F136 Grade 5ELI 0.012 0.130 0.050 0.250 0.080 0.12~0.25 Al:5.5~6.5
V:3.5~4.5
Bal. >=860 >=795 >=10
ASTM F1295 6Al-7Nb 0.015 0.180 0.030 0.200 0.080 0.12~0.25 Al:5.5~6.5 Bal. >=900 >=800 >=10
COMPARISON DATA WITH TITANIUM AND OTHER MATERIALS
  Commercially
pure Titanium
Titanium-alloy
Ti-6Al-4V
SUS304 Aluminum Hastelloy C Zirconium
Atomic Number 22 - - 13 - 40
Atomic Weight 47.9 - - 27.0 - 91.2
Crystalline Weight HCP<885℃<BBC HCP<approx.990℃<BBC FCC FCC FCC HCP<863℃<BBC
Specific Gravity 4.51 4.42 8.0 2.7 8.9 6.5
Melting Poing() 1668   660   1305 1852
Young's Modulus Gpa 106 113 199 69 205 89
Poisson's Ratio 0.34 0.29   0.33 - 0.33
Electric resistance 47~55 171 72 2.7 130 40~54
Electric Conductivity to Cu 3.1 1.1 2.4 64.0 1.3 3.1
Thermal conductivity(W/m℃) 17 7.5 16 203 12 17
Thermal Expansion coefficient
(X10-6/℃)[0~100℃]
8.4 8.8 17 23 12 6
Specific Heat(J/Kg-K) 520 520 500 880 1050 290
Heat Capacity(J/m3-K) 2.4 X 106 2.3 X 106 4.0 X 106 2.4 X 106 3.5 X 106 1.9 X 106
Table of Nickel & Ni-Alloy
MATERIAL ALLOY
NAME
CHEMICAL
COMPOSITION(%)
MECHANICAL PROPERT DENSITY
(g/cm3)
UNS No.
HEAT-
TREATMENT
CONDITION
TENSILE
STRENGTH
1000Psi
(Mpa)
YIELD
STRENGTH
1000Psi
(Mpa)at
0.2%offset
HARDNESS
BRINELL
(ROCKWELL)
HASTELLOY B B - Annealed     9.22   N10001
HASTELLOY B-2 B-2 Ni BAL,Cr1.0 Mo1.0 Fe2.0,Si 0.10
Co1.0,CO 0.02
Annealed 132.5
(914)
57.5
(396)
228
(B-98)
9.22 N10665
HASTELLOY C-4 C-4 Ni BAL,Cr1.0 Cr16 Mn1.0 Mo 15.5
Ti0.7 Fe3.0.C 0.01
Annealed 116.2
(801)
61.0
(421)
194
(B-92)
8.64 N06455
HASTELLOY C-276 C-276 59Ni,15Cr,16Mo,4W,5Fe Annealed 114.9
(792)
51.6
(356)
184
(B-90)
8.89 N10276
HASTELLOY C-22 C-22 Ni BAL Cr20-22.5 Mo 12.5-14.5
W 2.5-3.5 Co2.5, C 0.01
Annealed 116.3
(802)
58.5
(403)
184
(B-90)
8.69 N06022
HASTELLOY G G Ni BAL,Co2.5 Cr22 Cb+Ta 2
Fe 19.5,Cu2 Mo6.5,Mn1.5 W1,Si 1
Annealed 102.0
(703)
46.2
(319)
161
(B-84)
8.3 N06007
HASTELLOY G-3 G-3 Ni BAL,Co 1.5 Cr21-23.5,Cu 1.5-2.5
Fe18-21,W1.5 Mo6-8,Si1 Mn1, C0.015
Annealed 99.0
(683)
44.0
(303)
158
(B-83)
8.3 N06985
HASTELLOY X X Ni BAL,Co 1.5 Cr22.5,Si1 Mn1
Fe18.5 CO1 Al 0.5,Mo 9 W0.6 Ti 0.15
Annealed 109.5
(755)
55.9
(385)
194
(B-92)
8.22 N06002
Ni200 200 Ni 99.6 C 0.15 MAX Annealed 55-80
(380-550)
15-30
(100-210)
90-120 8.89 N02200
Ni201 201 Ni 99.6 C 0.02 MAX Annealed 55-80
(380-550)
15-30
(100-210)
90-120 8.89 N02201
Alloy 20
(Capenter20)
20 Ni 35,Mo 2.5 Fe 37, Cr 20 Cu 3.5 Annealed 90
(620)
45
(310)
183
(B-90)
8.00 N08020
Monel 400 400 Ni 63 min.,Cu 28~34 Annealed 70-90
(480-620)
25-5
(170-340)
110-149 8.83 N04400
Monel R-405 R-405 Ni 66.5,Cu 31.6 S 0.04 Annealed 70-85
(480-590)
25-40
(170-280)
110-140 8.80 N04405
Monel 450 450 Cu 66,Ni 30,Fe 0.7 Annealed 56
(385)
24
(165)
90   C71500
Monel K-500 K-500 Ni 63 min.,Cu 27~33,Al2.7,Ti 0.6 Annealed 140-190
(970-1310)
110-150
(760-1030)
265-346 8.44 N05500
Inconel 600 600 Ni 72 Min.,Cr 15.5,Fe 8 Annealed 80-100
(550-690)
30-50
(210-240)
120-170 8.47 N06600
Inconel 601 601 Ni 60.5, Cr 23 Fe 14,Al 1.4 Annealed 80-115
(550-790)
30-60
(210-340)
110-150 8.11 N06601
Inconel 617 617 Ni 44.5 min.,Mo 9,Cr 22,Al 1.2,Co 12.5 Annealed 110
(760)
51
(350)
173 8.36 N06617
Inconel 625 625 Ni 58 min.,Cr 21.5,Mo 9,Nb+Ta 3.6 Annealed 135
(930)
75
(520)
180 8.44 N06625
Inconel 690 690 Ni 58 MIN.,Cr 30,Fe 9.5 Annealed 100
(690)
55
(379)
184 8.19 N06690
Inconel 718 718 Ni 52.5,Mo 3,Cr 19,Fe18.5,Nb+Ta 5.1 Aged 196
(1350)
171
(1180)
382 8.19 N07718
Inconel X-750 X-750 Ni 70 min.,Ti 2.5,Cr 15.5,Fe 7,Nb+Ta 1.0 Annealed 162-193
(1120-1330)
115-142
(790-980)
300-390 8.28 N07750
Incoloy 800 800 Ni 32.5,Fe 46,Cr 21 Annealed 75-100
(520-690)
30-60
(210-410)
120-184 7.95 N08800
Incoloy 800H 800H Ni 32.5,Fe 39.5 min., Cr 21,Al+Ti 0.3~1.2 Annealed       7.95 N08810
Incoloy 800HT 800HT Ni 81 Min.,Cr 9.,Fe 6 Annealed 65-95
(450-660)
25-50
(140-340)
100-184 7.95 N08811
Incoloy 825 825 Ni 42,Cu2.2,Fe 30,Cr 21.5,Mo 3 Annealed       8.14 N08825
254MO 254SMO 20Cr, 18Ni,6Mo,0.8Cu,0.2N Annealed (>=655) (>=310) ~223 7.8 S31254
NAS 254NM AL6XN 21Cr,24Ni,6Mo,0.2N Annealed (>=655) (>=310) ~240 8.06 N08367
904L AL940L 20Cr,24Ni,4.3Mo,1.5Cu Annealed (>=490) (>=215) ~187 7.9 N08904
DUPLEX 2205 2205 22Cr,5.3Ni,3.2Mo,0.16N Annealed (>=620) (>=450) ~302 7.88 S32205
SUS329J4L SUS329J4L 25Cr,6.5Ni,3.3Mo,0.17N Annealed (>=620) (>=450) ~302   S32506
                 
SHEET
&PLATE
STRIP ROD BAR WIRE FORGING AUTOMATIC(WELDING) WELDED
PIPE
SEAMLESS
PIPE&TUBE
MAJOR APPLICATION
WELDED
PIPE
WELDED
TUBE
B333 B333 B335 B335     B619 B626   B622  
B333 B333 B335 B335   B462 B619 B626   B622  
B575 B575 B574 B574     B619 B626 B775 B622  
B575 B575 B574 B574   B564 B619 B626 B775 B622  
B575 B575 B574 B574   B564 B619 B626 B775 B622  
B582 B582 B581       B619 B626 B775 B622  
B582 B582 B581 B581     B619 B626 B775 B622  
B435 B435 B572 B572     B619 B626 B775 B622  
B162 B162 B160 B160     B725 B730 B775 B161  
B162 B162 B160 B160     B725 B730 B775 B161  
B463 B463 B473 B473   B462 B464 B468   B729  
B127 B127 B164 B164 B164 B564 B725 B730 B775 B165  
      B164 B164            
B171 B171         B467     B466  
B168 B168 B166 B166 B166 B564 B517 B516 B775 B167  
C.C.1500 C.C.1500 C.C.1500     C.C.1500 C.C.1500 C.C.1500      
B168 B168 B166 B166   B564       B167  
B443 B443 B446 B446   B564 B705 B704 B775 B444  
B168 B168 B166 B166           B167  
B409 B409 B408 B408   B564 B514 B515 B775 B407  
B409 B409 B408 B408   B564 B514 B515 B775 B407  
B409 B409 B408 B408   B564 B514 B515 B775 B407  
B424 B424 B425 B425   B564 B705 B704 B775 B423  
A240 B409                  
B688 B688 B691 B691   B564 B675 B676   B690  
B625 B625 B649 B649     B673 B674   B677  
A240 B424                  
A240 B409                  

Weight